Spatial Sampling

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Spatial Sampling

Monday 20 - Thursday 23 September 2021

Hotel "De Bosrand", Ede 



Sound sampling design is essential for the collection of data to support reliable scientific inference and decision making for management and policy. What counts as a sound design depends on the problem of interest, and the nature of the statistical inference that is required. Two broad aims can be distinguished, estimating the overall mean or total of a population, e.g. the total soil carbon stock in an area, and mapping. Estimating the means or totals of several subpopulations (subareas) is in between these two extremes. This course presents an overview of spatial sampling strategies for the full spectrum of aims. For estimating (sub)population means or totals probability sampling and design-based or model-assisted estimation is most appropriate, whereas for mapping probability sampling is not required, and there is scope to optimize the locations of the sampling points with a statistical model of the spatial variation. 

In this course you will learn how to choose a sampling design that is most appropriate for the aim of your project. Theoretical concepts from classical sampling and geostatistics will be explained with a strong emphasis on practical application. In the course you will be provided with scripts for the free R platform, which will allow you to use the methods that are described to solve your sampling problems.

This course is set in hotel "De Bosrand" in Ede. The course fee includes accomodation and catering. Participants have their own room and all COVID-19 measures will be strickly adhered to. 


Day 1 (afternoon): Overview of spatial sampling strategies; Probability sampling for estimating population means

  • Probability sampling versus non-probability sampling. Design-based versus model-based statistical inference; Horvitz-Thompson estimator
  • Simple random sampling

Day 2: More advanced probability sampling designs and model-assisted estimation of population means

  • Stratified simple random sampling
  • Overview of other probability sampling designs (systematic random sampling, cluster random sampling, two-stage cluster random sampling, balanced sampling, ....)
  • Regression and ratio estimators of population means

Day 3 Sampling for mapping

  • Regular grid sampling for mapping
  • Spatial coverage sampling for mapping
  • Covariate space coverage sampling and conditioned Latin hypercube sampling for mapping
  • Introduction to kriging
  • Model-based optimization of grid spacing for ordinary kriging and kriging with an external drift

Day 4 Model-based sampling for mapping; Sampling for map validation

  • Model-based optimization of sampling pattern for ordinary kriging and kriging with an external drift
  • Sampling for validation of maps
General information
Target Group The course is aimed at PhD candidates and other academics
Group Size Min. 16, max. 20 participants
Course duration 3 days (2 half day, 2 full days, 3 nights)
Language of instruction English
Frequency of recurrence Once every two years
Number of credits 0.9 ECTS
Lecturers Dr. Dick Brus (Biometris - Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Wageningen UR)
Prior knowledge Basic knowledge of R is assumed
Location Hotel "De Bosrand" - Ede (The Netherlands) 
Accommodation Accommodation is included in the fee of the course.


Fees 1
PE&RC / WIMEK / WASS / EPS / VLAG / WIAS PhDs with TSP € 255,- € 305,-
a) All other PhD candidates
b) Postdocs and staff of the above-mentioned Graduate Schools
€ 590,- € 640,-
All others € 845,- € 895,-

1 The course fee includes accomodation, catering and a reader.
2 The Early-Bird Fee applies to anyone who REGISTERS ON OR BEFORE  26 JULY 2021


  • If you need an invoice to complete your payment, please send an email to, including ALL relevant details that should be mentioned on the invoice (e.g., purchase order no., specific addresses, attendees, etc.).
  • Please make sure that your payment is arranged within two weeks after your registration.
  • It is the participant's responsibility to make sure that he/she (or his/her secretary) completes the payment correctly and in time.
PE&RC Cancellation Conditions
  • Please note that PE&RC will be lenient with cancellation due to the COVID-19 situation.
  • Up to 4 (four) weeks prior to the start of the course, cancellation is free of charge.
  • Up to 2 (two) weeks prior to the start of the course, a fee of € 305,- will be charged.
  • In case of cancellation within two weeks prior to the start of the course, a fee of € 640,- will be charged.
  • If you do not show at all, a fee of € 895,- will nevertheless be charged.

Note: If you would like to cancel your registration, ALWAYS inform us (and do note that you will be kept to the cancellation conditions)

More information

Dr. Dick Brus
Phone: +31 (0) 317 486520

Dr. Sabine Vreeburg (PE&RC)
Phone: +31 (0) 317 485853


To register, please enter your details below and click "Register".